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      2. Glossary of terms


        A

        A/P

        Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

        AAOS

        American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

        Abdomen

        A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

        Abduct

        To draw away from the midline

        Abduction

        The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

        Abductor

        A muscle performing the function of abduction

        Abscess

        Localized collection of pus

        Acetabulum

        The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

        Acromion

        Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

        Acute

        Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

        Adamant

        Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

        Adduct

        To draw toward the midline

        Adduction

        The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

        Allograft

        A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

        Alloy

        A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

        All-poly

        A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

        Amphiarthrosis

        A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

        Anconeus

        Pertaining to the elbow

        Ankylosis

        The fusion of a joint

        Anteflexion

        A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

        Anterior

        Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

        Anteversion

        A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

        Apex

        Top or summit

        Aponeurosis

        A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

        Appliance

        Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

        Apposition

        The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

        Aqueous

        Watery

        Arthritis

        Inflammation of a joint

        Arthrodesis

        Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

        Arthroplasty

        The surgical reconstruction of a joint

        Arthrosis

        A joint: from the Greek

        Arthrotomy

        Cutting into a joint

        Articular

        Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

        Articulation

        Movement of a joint; from the Latin

        Asepsis

        A condition free from germs; free from infection

        Aspect

        Position, surface, or face

        Aspirate

        To remove by suction

        Asymmetric design

        A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

        Atrophy

        A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

        Autograft

        A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

        Autonomic

        ?Being self-controlled; independent

        Axial

        ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

        B

        Beads, beaded

        Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

        Biaxial

        Turning about two axes (having two axes)

        Biconcave

        Having two concave surfaces

        Bilateral

        Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

        Biocompatibility

        Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

        Biomechanics

        The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

        Bipolar

        Having two poles or processes

        Blood

        A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

        Bone cement

        Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

        Brachial

        Pertaining to the arm

        Broach

        A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

        C

        Cage

        A type of spinal implant

        Calcaneus

        The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

        Calcar

        A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

        Cancellous

        Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

        Cancellous bone

        A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

        Cancellous-structured titanium

        A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

        Capitate

        Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

        Capitulum

        Little head.

        Capsular

        A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

        Caput

        Head; capitis, "of the head."

        Carpal

        Pertaining to the wrist.

        Carpus

        The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

        Caudal

        Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

        Cement

        Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

        Cemented

        An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

        Central

        Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

        Chronic

        Of long duration; opposite of acute.

        Circumduct

        To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

        Circumflex

        Bent or turned about.

        Clavicle

        The collar bone

        Clinical pathway

        Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

        Coatings

        Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

        Cobalt-chrome

        A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

        Coccyx

        Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

        CoCr

        Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

        Collar, collared

        The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

        Component

        A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

        Concave

        Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

        Condyle

        A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

        Condyloid

        Resembling a knuckle.

        Congenital

        Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

        Congruent

        The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

        Convex

        Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

        Coracoid

        Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

        Costal

        Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

        Coxa

        The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

        Cranial

        Pertaining to the cranium.

        Cranium

        The skull or brain pan.

        Cruciate

        Shaped like a cross.

        Cruciate ligament

        Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

        Cruciate-retaining

        A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

        Cruciate-sacrificing

        A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

        CSTi

        A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

        Cubital

        Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

        Custom

        An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

        Cyclic fatigue

        A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

        D

        Deltoid

        Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

        Design rationale

        The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

        Diagnosis

        Recognition of disease from symptoms.

        Diathrosis

        A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

        Digiti

        Of a digit.

        Digitorum

        Of the digits.

        Dislocation

        The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

        Distal

        Remote; opposite of proximal.

        Dorsiflex

        To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

        E

        Endosteum

        Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

        Epi

        A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

        Epicondyle

        A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

        Epiphysis

        A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

        Etiology

        The study of the causes of disease

        Eversion

        The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

        Evert

        To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

        Extension

        A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

        External

        On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

        Extra

        Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

        F

        FDA

        Food and Drug Administration

        Femur

        Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

        Fixation

        The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

        Flexion

        Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

        Flexure

        The curved or bent part of a structure

        Foramen

        A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

        Fossa

        A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

        Fracture

        A break in the continuity of bone

        G

        Glenoid

        Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

        GMP

        Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

        H

        Hallux

        The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

        Harris Hip Scores

        A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

        HSS Knee Scores

        Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

        Humerus

        The upper arm bone.

        Hydroxyapatite (HA)

        A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

        Hyper

        Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

        Hyperplasia

        Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

        Hypertrophy

        Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

        Hypo

        A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

        I

        IDE

        Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

        Ilium

        The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

        Implant

        A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

        Index

        Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

        Inferior

        Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

        Infra

        A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

        Ingrowth

        The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

        Instrument

        A tool or implement used in surgery.

        Inter

        A prefix meaning "between".

        Interbody fusion

        A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

        Interface

        Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

        Internal

        Within or on the inside.

        Intra

        A prefix meaning "within".

        Inversion

        The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

        Invert

        To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

        Involuntary

        Performed against the will or consent.

        Ischium

        Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

        ISO

        International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

        K

        Knee Society Score

        A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

        Kyphosis

        An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

        L

        Lateral

        Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

        LD

        Low-demand or low density

        LDPE

        Low Density Polyethylene

        Ligament

        Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

        Lordosis

        Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

        Lumen

        Space within a tube or organ.

        Lunate

        A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

        Luxation

        Dislocation of a joint.

        M

        M/L

        Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

        Major

        Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

        Malleolus

        A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

        Mandible

        Bone of lower jaw.

        Marrow

        Soft central part of a bone.

        Maxilla

        A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

        Media

        Middle

        Medial

        Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

        Median

        Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

        Meniscectomy

        Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

        Meniscus

        A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

        Metacarpus

        Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

        Metal-backed

        Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

        Minor

        Smaller, opposite of major.

        Morphology

        The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

        N

        Navicular

        Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

        Necrosis

        Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

        Non-porous

        An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

        O

        O.R.I.F.

        Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

        Oblique

        Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

        Olecranon

        From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

        Opposition

        The act of opposing one part to another.

        Orbital

        Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

        Organ

        A group of tissues having a special function.

        Orthopedics

        Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

        Orthopedist

        A physician specializing in orthopedics.

        Os

        Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

        Osmosis

        Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

        Ossification

        Formation of bone.

        Osteophyte

        An abnormal bony outgrowth

        Osteoporosis

        Increased porosity of bone.

        Osteotomy

        Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

        Outcome management

        The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

        Outcomes

        The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

        Oxygenless

        A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

        P

        Palmar

        The palm of the hand.

        Para

        Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

        Patella

        The kneecap

        Patient Satisfaction Surveys

        Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

        Pearls

        Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

        Pedal

        Pertaining to the foot.

        Pelvis

        A basin or basin-like structure.

        Peri

        Prefix meaning "around."

        Peripheral

        Located on or near the surface of a part.

        Pes

        The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

        Phalanges

        Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

        Plantar

        Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

        Plasma

        Fluid portion of the blood.

        Plasma spray

        A coating for implants

        Plastics

        A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

        PMA

        Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

        PMMA

        Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

        Polyethylene

        A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

        Pore

        Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

        Porous

        Characterized by pores and open spaces.

        Porous-coated

        The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

        Posterior

        Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

        Press-fit

        Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

        Primary

        Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

        Process

        A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

        Prognosis

        The likely outcome of an illness

        Pronate

        To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

        Prone

        Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

        Prosthesis

        Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

        Protract

        To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

        Proximal

        Nearest; opposite of distal.

        PS

        Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

        Pseudarthrosis

        A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

        Pseudo

        A prefix signifying "false.

        PT

        Premier Total

        Pubis

        Pubic bone

        R

        Radiolucent

        Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

        Radius

        A bone of the forearm.

        Ream,reaming

        A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

        Recurvatum

        Hyperextension of the knee.

        Reduction

        Restoration to normal position.

        Retract

        To pull back; opposite of protract.

        Retrieve

        To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

        Retro

        Prefix meaning behind.

        Retroflexion

        A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

        Retroversion

        A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

        Revision

        In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

        Roentgenogram

        A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

        Roentgenoscopy

        Examination by means of a fluoroscope

        ROM

        The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

        Rotation

        The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

        S

        Sac

        Any bag-like organ

        Sacrum

        Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

        Sagittal

        Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

        Scapula

        The shoulder blade.

        Scoliosis

        Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

        Semilunar

        Shaped like a half moon

        Septic

        Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

        Serrated

        Having a saw-tooth edge

        Serum

        Clear portion of any animal fluid

        Shear

        A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

        Shell

        The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

        Sinus

        A cavity

        Skeleton

        The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

        Spinous

        A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

        SS

        Stainless Steel

        Stem

        A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

        Sterile

        Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

        Sternum

        The breast bone

        Sub

        Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

        Subclavian

        Beneath the clavicle

        Subluxation

        A partial or incomplete dislocation

        Submaxillary

        Beneath the maxilla

        Subscapular

        Beneath the scapula

        Subsidence

        The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

        Superior

        Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

        Supinate

        To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

        Supine

        Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

        Supra

        Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

        Surgical pearls

        Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

        Surgical technique

        A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

        Symphysis

        A growing together

        Synovectomy

        An immovable joint

        Synovia

        A union of bones by means of cartilage

        Synovial Membrane

        A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

        T

        Talus

        The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

        Tarsus

        (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

        Telesession

        An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

        Template

        An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

        Tendon

        Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

        Tensile strength

        A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

        Thoracic

        Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

        Ti

        The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

        Tibia

        Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

        Tissue

        A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

        Titanium

        A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

        Trabecular

        A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

        Trochanter

        Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

        Trochlear groove

        The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

        Tubercle

        A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

        Tuberosity

        Broad eminence on a bone

        U

        UHMWPE

        Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

        Ulna

        The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

        Ultra-congruent

        Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

        Uncemented

        A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

        UNI

        Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

        Unilateral

        One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

        V

        Valgus

        A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

        Value-added services

        This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

        Varus

        (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

        Vastus

        Wide or great

        Vertex

        The summit or apex

        Viscous

        Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

        Vitreous

        Glassy

        Voluntary

        Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

        W

        Wear

        The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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        Talk to your surgeon about whether joint replacement or another treatment is right for you and the risks of the procedure, including the risk of implant wear, loosening or failure, and pain, swelling and infection. Zimmer Biomet does not practice medicine; only a surgeon can answer your questions regarding your individual symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
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